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June 5, 1862
The Treaty of Saigon signed by the French and Tu Duc cedes three southern provinces (Bien Hoa, Gia Dinh, and Dinh Tuong) to the French.
April 1863
Treaty between the French and Tu Duc is ratified. French Admiral La Grandiere imposes protectorate on Cambodia.
Cochinchina becomes a French colony.
Franco-Vietnamese treaty confirms French sovereignty over Cochinchina.
Aug 1883
French attack Hue and a strong ground force moves on Hanoi. The French decree a "Treaty of Protectorate" on the Imperial Court.
Kien Phuoc is succeeded by Ham Nghi who rules for one year and then takes refuge in the mountains.
25 Aug 1883
Annam and Tonkin come under French rule.
French pick Emperor Dong Khanh to rule. Ham Nghi leads resistance against the French and then is captured and exiled to Algeria.
The Indochina Union is formed by the French. The independent Vietnamese state ceases to exist with the establishment of the Indochinese Union. French impose colonial rule and the Vietnamese maintain a strong desire for independence.
Emperor Dong Khanh dies and is replaced by 10 yr old Thank Thai.
19 May 1890.
Birth of Ho Chi Minh (per one version).
Laos is removed from Thai control and becomes a French Protectorate, joining Vietnam and Cambodia in the Indochinese Union.
Phan Boi Chau founds Viet Nam Duy Tan Hoi (Vietnam Reformation Society).
1907 Thank Thai is deported to the Indian island of Reunion for plotting against the French. His succeeded by his son Emperor Duy Tan who is accused of treason. Duy Tan is also exiled to Reunion. The next Emperor Khai Dinh reigns until 1925.
Oct 1911

Ho Chi Minh travels to Europe, spending one winter in the U.S. After working as a pastry chef at the Hotel Carleton in London, he moves to Paris as a photographer.

Phan Boi Chau founds Viet Nam Quang Phuc Hoi (Vietnam Restoration Society), which replaces Duy Tan Hoi.
Nguyen Ai Quoc (Ho Chi Minh) attempts to meet with President Woodrow Wilson at the Versailles Peace Conference to present a program for Vietnamese rights and sovereignty, but is turned away.
Ho Chi Minh participates in founding of the French Communist Party at Tours, France.
Ho Chi Minh visits Moscow for the first time.
Emperor Bao Dai (son of Khai Dinh) reigns until 1945.
The Marxist group, Vietnam Revolutionary Youth League founded in Canton by Ho Chi Minh.
Ho Chi Minh forms Thanh Nien Cong San Doan (Communist Youth League) within the larger Thanh Nien organization.
25 Dec 27
The Vietnam National Party "Viet Nam Quoc Dan Dang" (VNQDD or Viet Quoc) was secretly formed in Ha Noi as a revolutionary party. It's objectives included armed uprising aimed at toppling the French and establishment of a democracy.
10 Feb 30
Yen-Bai uprising against the French led by the VNQDD which showed the unerlying animosity towards the French colonists, and marked a turning point in Indochina. VNQDD leader Nguyen Thai Hoc and twelve other party members were guillotined in Yen Bai by the French.
Feb 1930
Ho Chi Minh forms the Vietnamese Communist Party (VCP, Viet Nam Cong San Dang) in Hong Kong.
The Nghe An Soviet Protest was smaller and less significant that the earlier Yen-Bai uprising, but is highly regarded in communist circles.
Over following years, parties opposed to the French rule united in the Vietnamese Revolutionary Allied League (Viet Nam Cach Menh Dong Minh Hoi, or VNCMDMH) which included the VNQDD and the Vietnamese Communist Party.
Oct 1930
The name of the Vietnamese Communist Party is changed to "Indochinese Communist Party" (Dong Duong Cong San Dang).
Oct 34
When Chinese Nationalist forces surround Communists in southeast China at teh height of teh Chinese Civil War, Mao broke the trap and fled over 12,000 km on foot on the famous "Long March" to northwest China.
Japan invades Southern China. Chiang Kai-shek enters into an uneasy alliance with the Communists.
Sep 1939
World War Two begins.
Franco-Japanese treaty. In a pact with the Japanese, the Vichy French appoint the Indochinese Government of Admiral Jean Decoux. Japanese occupy Vietnam.
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